Science of nanomaterials for energy harvesting/energy storage (HfZrOf, 2D MoS2)
The lack of fundamental knowledge such as conductivity, permittivity and permeability in the high-frequency domain for HfZrOf (and as well for 2D MoS2) has prevented their previous use for energy harvesting/energy storage devices. This will be addressed in NANO-EH as Scientific Objective 1 (SO1) Atomistic to meso-scale modelling of high-frequency electronic properties for the HfZrOf and 2D MoS2. In NANO-EH a specific research methodology for SO1 will be developed.
NANO-EH’s More-than-Moore technological platform builds on high-performance components:
- ultralow voltage HfZrO-based miniaturised phased antenna arrays and MIM diodes for several targeted applications within a wide frequency range (1-30GHz)
- high responsivity and low Noise Equivalent Power of HfO2-based MIM diodes for mm-wave ultra-low power (≤-20dBm) harvesters (30-80GHz)
Energy harvesting techniques at microwaves and millimetre waves
Light harvesting capabilities integration of NANO-EH platform
In NANO-EH the energy-harvested by: (i) a nanocellulose-based piezo-harvester, (ii) 2D MoS2-based piezo-harvester and (iii) 2D MoS2/Si tandem solar cells will be integrated in the Wake-EH module (see the figure below). Wake-EH will provide the energy to wake up the nonlinear circuitry of the RF harvesting sub-system ( RF-EH). In NANO-EH the hybrid 3D stack route will be used for integration of RF-EH and Wake-EH on the same Si platform.
In NANO-EH HfZrO- and VO2(B)-based supercapacitors will be integrated on both the RF energy harvester platform and on the “wake-up” energy harvester platform. The growth on HfZrO and of VO2(B) will be optimized on both Si and sapphire substrates. For HfZrO supercapacitors, both the ferroelectric (FE) and antiferroelectric (AFE) phase of the material will exploited. NANO-EH will give a pioneering contribution towards novel high-capacity superconductors.
Energy storage capabilities
There are many IoT device designs that are ripe for commercialization but are inhibited by the need for the device to have regular battery replacement. In many cases this makes the part economically unviable, unattractive to potential customers or simply unmanageable due to logistics and complexity in arranging for parts to be accessed and their batteries replaced or re-charged. Such products often come from SMEs who have limited or no expertise in energy harvesting or are not experts in minimizing power consumption.
NANO-EH will ensure the full chain “smart” materials – applications – production by demonstrating a significant cost reduction and an optimization of the manufacturing process. Starting from rigorous multi-physics design and simulation tools, NANO-EH will optimize separately each device (harvester, RF/DC electronic component, energy storage system-supercapacitors) and, in a second step, it will propose a smart integration of all the sub-systems into a unified, energy-efficient platform, which will represent a production model for all subsequent harvesting systems with characteristics of economic and environmental sustainability. NANO-EH platforms can give the designer insight of the target power consumption levels needed for the device for a ‘deploy and forget’ solution to be viable for development by themselves, or with a collaborative partner.
The NANO-EH innovative approach
In order to benefit from new knowledge companies must be structured in a way that they are open to innovate and have the capacity to adapt to new ideas, new technologies and new methods of working. To this end, companies and knowledge/technology providers must work together in partnership in order to leverage the vast potential that is available to them. NANO-EH will establish the appropriate knowledge base and create the energy & storage management ecosystem to achieve this and to have a transformative impact on the SMEs it engages with. Enhanced innovation capacity will be achieved through linking Knowledge Providers and Industry stakeholders via the Access Providers across the value chain